Many unique laws apply to employment law situations. The following is a list of the most common types of employment-related lawsuits and laws:


The law that governs employment in the United States is divided into two main parts: civil rights law and labor law. Civil rights laws protect employees from discrimination, harassment, and other unfair practices. Labor laws protect employment law from unfair labor practices by employees (or unionized workers).

Civil Rights Laws

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion, and national origin among other factors.[1] This includes race-based hiring practices as well as gender discrimination if it occurs between men or women at work.[2] The Equal employment law Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforces these laws through its investigations department which has offices all over the country.[3]

The following is a list of the most common types of employment-related lawsuits and laws.

The following is a list of the most common types of employment-related lawsuits and laws.

ADA: Americans with Disabilities Act

ADEA: Age Discrimination in employment law

FMLA: Family and Medical Leave Act

IRCA (Employment Rights Center): Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA) FLSA: Fair Labor Standards Act NLRA

Age Discrimination in employment law (ADEA)

The ADEA is a federal law that protects employees aged 40 and older against age discrimination in employment law. It applies to employers with 20 or more employees or 10 or more employees in the case of state and local government employers.

ADEA prohibits any employer from discriminating against an individual for reasons such as:

  • age;
  • sex;
  • disability;
  • religion;
  • marital status (single, married/domestic partnership);
  • national origin/ancestry;
  • color, race, or ancestry (to include Native Americans).

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal law that prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities. The ADA covers employers, private and public sector businesses, state and local governments, and colleges/universities.

The ADA applies to all employers—private, public, or nonprofit (including government). It also applies to small companies with 15 or more employees who provide services within the United States. If you are employed by an employer covered by Title I of the ADA then it’s likely that your workplace has been inspected under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act Amendments Act (REA),

Which requires equal opportunity for qualified individuals with disabilities in all programs or activities of federally assisted public elementary schools or secondary schools; postsecondary institutions; State vocational rehabilitation agencies; state-supported living centers for persons with mental retardation;

Regional centers for independent living skills training; sheltered workshop programs operated under this section on behalf of Project Independence; youth development entities receiving financial assistance through applications submitted under section 719(b)(4) below; very low-income housing projects receiving financial assistance through applications submitted under section 719(b)(3) above).

Equal Pay Act (EPA)

The Equal Pay Act (EPA) is a federal law that prohibits employers from paying different wages to men and women who perform equal work in the same place under similar working conditions. It applies to all employers, including federal, state, and local governments.

The EPA was enacted in 1963 as part of President John F. Kennedy’s civil rights agenda. The EPA requires that men and women receive equal pay for equal work without regard to sex or gender identity; however, there are exceptions where an employer can make a difference between men’s salaries and women’s salaries based on seniority or merit.

Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) is a federal law that provides for up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave each year, beginning on the day after an employee’s last day of work. This may be taken in one or two blocks of time (for example, four weeks), but the total amount cannot exceed 12 weeks during any 12 months.

The FMLA covers employers with 50 or more employees who meet certain requirements in terms of having at least one employee who works at least 1,250 hours per year.

Employers are also required to offer their full-time employees health insurance coverage equal to or better than that provided by their state’s minimum wage laws, which amounts to no less than $450 per week ($918 per month).

Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)

Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA)

The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) is a federal law that makes it illegal to hire undocumented workers. It’s also illegal to fire them, but only if they were hired before IRCA went into effect on January 2, 1986. That means that any company that fired an employee after January 2, 1986, could be charged with breaking this law!

Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)

The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) is a federal law that sets minimum wage, overtime pay, and recordkeeping requirements for employees in the United States. It applies to all employers, including state and local governments. The FLSA also covers workers who are not citizens or legal permanent residents of the United States.

The FLSA does not apply to agricultural workers unless they work more than 40 hours per week on an annual basis or 75 percent of their time during any given month in agriculture work; however it does apply to such workers who are part-time employees (e.g., those who usually work less than nine months out of each year).

National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)

The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) is the law that protects employees’ rights to engage in union activity. The NLRA protects the right to organize, bargain collectively and strike. It also protects other activities related to union activity such as picketing or boycotting a company.

Many unique laws apply to employment situations.

Many unique laws apply to employment law situations.

  • There are many types of employment law relationships, including:
  • Full-time versus part-time work
  • Seasonal work and temporary employees (e.g., contract workers)
  • Temporary workers who have worked for an employer for more than six months but less than one year (such as interns) are entitled to benefits under some circumstances.
  • For example, if they work at least 20 hours per week or 40 hours per week during a particular period, they may be eligible for health insurance coverage through COBRA (Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act), which allows employees who lose their jobs due to an employer’s bankruptcy or liquidation proceeding access to continuation coverage until the end of the term specified in their collective bargaining agreement


Employment lawyers can help you with your employment law cases and make sure that you are protected from any potential lawsuits. You can also learn about different laws such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, which protects people with disabilities from discrimination in the workplace. If you’re facing a lawsuit because of your employment law, contact an experienced attorney today to learn more about how they can help!

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